//Kyun Obesity ko Jaanna Aapke liye Important hai?
Control Obesity.

Kyun Obesity ko Jaanna Aapke liye Important hai?

Ek time tha jab kisi insaan ka overweight hona uske wealth aur power ka symbol hua karta tha. Lekin dheere-dheere Sushruta, Hippocrates aur doosre physicians ne jaan liya tha ki obesity se bahut saari diseases hote hai. Agar aaj ki baat karein toh obesity ke kaaran sirf diseases hi nahi but uska mazaak bhi banaaya jaata hai. Obesity aaj ke date mein ek stigma ban gaya hai.

1975 se compare karein toh duniyabhar mein ab obesity 3 times increase ho chukka hai aur 2016 mein 1.9 billion adults overweight thhe. – World Health Organization

Obesity, jo ek high-income countries ka disease kaha jaata tha, woh ab global epidemic ban gaya hai jo ab low aur middle-income countries mein bhi bahut commonly dekha jaata hai. In fact, bahut saare developing countries ab ek unique problem face kar rahe hai jisme, ek taraf obesity ka rate elevate ho raha hai toh doosri taraf bahut log malnutrition ka shikaar bhi ho rahe hai.

Obesity ka Definition, BMI aur Obesity Badhne ka Reason

Obesity ek complex (jatil) disease hai jise hum prevent kar sakte hai. Aasan shabdo mein kaha jaaye toh obesity ko hum zyada BMI ya zyada fat jama hona bol sakte hai jis se bahut saari health problems ho sakte hai. Iin problems mein sabse common type 2 diabetes, heart attack, hypertension (high b.p.), non alcoholic fatty liver disease aur cancers sabse common hai.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Weight Loss

Insaan ke body type ko jaanne ke liye doctors ya experts aksar BMI yaani Body Mass Index ka use karte hai. Iis se hum kisi ka bhi body type jaan sakte hai jo ki underweight se severe obesity ke beech ho sakta hai. BMI ko calculate karne ke liye hum kisi bhi insaan ka weight (kg mein) ko uske height (meters) se divide karte hai aur phir usko BMI table se match karke uske body type ke baare mein jaan sakte hai.

BMI Table

Body TypeBMI (kg/m2)
UnderweightLess than 18.5
Normal Weight18.5 – 24.9
Overweight25 – 29.9
Obesity (Class I)

Obesity (Class II)

30 – 34.9

35 – 39.9

Extreme ObesityMore than 40

 

Obesity Badhne ka Reason

Iise samajhne ke liye pehle aapko apne body ka energy balance ko samajhne hoga jo weight ke increase ya decrease hone ka reason hai. Generally, energy balance hum sabke body ke energy ko maintain karta hai. Har insaan ko food se energy milta hai (energy intake) aur roj ke kaam karne aur body metabolism ke liye wahi energy hume kharch (energy expenditure) karna padta hai.

Healthy ya stable body weight ke liye aapka energy intake aur energy expenditure equal hona chahiye. Agar energy expenditure energy intake se zyda hai matlub agar hum khaana kam kha rahe hai aur daily ke kaam mein ya body metabolism mein zyada energy spend kar rahe hai toh negative energy balance hota hai, jis se weight loss hone lagta hai. Iisi ke ulat, agar humara energy intake, energy expenditure se zyada ho jaaye toh weight gain hone lagta hai aur iise positive energy balance bolte hai.

Positive energy balance ke kaaran obesity hota hai jo ki zyada khaana khaane, eating habits, physical inactivity, genetics, insomnia (neend nahi aana) ya doosre reasons se ho sakta hai.

Obesity ke Causes

Obesity ek multifactorial disease hai jo har insaan ko alag-alag tareeko se affect kar sakta hai. Neeche diye hue kuch common factors hai jis se obesity hone ka risk increase ho sakta hai.

  • Excess energy intake (zyada khaana)
  • High calorie diet
  • Eating pattern (khaane ka timing)
  • Physical inactivity
  • Genetics
  • Little or excess sleep (zyada ya kam sona)
  • Hypothyroidism, Prader-Willi Syndrome, Alstrom Syndrome aur doosre health conditions
  • Depression ya Stress
  • Drugs
  • Alcohol aur Smoking

Diet aur Obesity

Fast food

Peechle 10 saal mein obesity pe bahut saare research kiye gaye hai jo adhiktar diet se related thhe. Peechle kuch saalo mein fast food ke use ke saath-saath obesity ka increase hona koi coincidence nahi hai because dono ek doosre se connected hai. Aasani se milne aur normal khaane se zyada tasty hone ke kaaran fast food ka consumption bahut zyada ho gaya hai jis se insaan obesity ka shikaar hota hai.

Zyada fast food khaane se weight badhta hai kyunki fast food ek high calorie diet hai jo insaan ka energy intake ko raise kar deta hai. Iiske saath-saath, fast food mein trans fatty acids hote hai jis se uska taste aur shelf life improve ho lekin ye obesity ka risk bhi increase karta hai.

Physical Inactivity aur Obesity

Ye ek aur common reason hai jis se obesity hota hai. Physical inactivity se humaare body ka energy expenditure kam ho jaata hai jo humaare energy balance ko badal deta hai jis se weight gain hone lagta hai. Zyada time tak television dekhna, zyada sona aur kam ya na physical exercise ko physical inactivity kaha jaa sakta hai.

Watching TV for too long

Genetics aur Obesity

Diet ke baad ab obesity ke liye genetics ko blame karna aaj kal bahut common ho gaya hai aur kuch logo ke liye ye sach bhi hai. Overweight individuals mein bahut saare genes identified kiye gaye hai jis se obesity ka risk badh jaata hai. Iin genes mein leptin associated genes, ADRB3 gene aur Adiponectin genes bahut common hai. Genes ke alawa kuch genetic disorders jaise ki Prader-Willi, Angelman, Wilson-Turner and Alstrom syndrome se bhi obesity hota hai.

Obesity se hone waale Health Problems

Obesity se kai tarah ke health problems ho sakte hai jisme sabse commonly type 2 diabetes, hypertension (high b.p.), heart aur liver diseases, cancers, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis aur PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) ko observe kiya gaya hai.

Obesity se diabetes hone ka risk bahut zyada hota hai aur iisi liye American Diabetes Association doctors ko recommend karta hai ki woh apne har patient ko type 2 diabetes ka test karne ke liye kahe jo overweight ya obese hai. Ye anumaan lagaya gaya hai ki kareeb 90% insaan jinhe type 2 diabetes hai woh obese bhi hai. Overweight hone se type 2 diabetes hone ka risk 3 times badh jaata hai aur obesity ke case mein yahi risk 7 times badh jaata hai. Iske saath hi agar bachpan mein kisi ka weight jyada hai toh life mein aage jaa kar type 2 diabetes hone ka chance hota hai.

  • Obesity aur Heart Diseases

Heart

Increased BMI se heart disease, dyslipidemia (high cholesterol levels), hypertension (high blood pressure) aur stroke hone ka risk hota hai. BMI ke alawa, increased waist circumferences se heart diseases ho sakte hai. Obesity se heart ka structure mein bhi change aa sakta hai jis se heart failure, irregular heartbeats aur heart attack ka chance hota hai. Iiske saath hi atherosclerosis bhi ho sakta hai jisme arteries ke andar fat buildup hone se blood flow mein rukaawat aa jaata hai.

  • Obesity aur Liver Diseases

Obesity se non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ya non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ho sakta hai. Iiske kaaran hepatomegaly (liver ka bada hona), macrovesicular steatosis, steatohepatitis (liver pe fat jama hona), fibrosis (liver tissue ka scarring) aur cirrhosis hota hai. Liver cirrhosis ek chronic liver damage hai jisme liver fail ho sakta hai.

  • Obesity aur Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis, arthritis ka ek bahut common type hai jisme humaare bone (haddi) ka aakhri part degrade hone lagta hai. Ye aksar budhaapa mein ya kisi injury ke kaaran hota hai, lekin obese insaano mein zyada weight hone ke kaaran ho sakta hai jis se joints pe zyada pressure padta hai.

  • Obesity aur Reproductive Health

Women mein obesity se polycysic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ho sakta hai jis se insulin resistance, anovulation (ovulation ki kami) aur hyperandrogenism (male sex hormones jaise ki testosterone ka level badhna) hota hai. Iiske saath hi pregnancy mein bhi bahut saare complications ho sakte hai. Men mein  abdominal obesity se impotence aur infertility ho sakta hai.

  • Obesity aur Mental Health

Aaj ke date mein obesity ek stigma ban gaya hai jis se obese insaano mein low self-esteem, mood disorder aur eating ya communication problems dekha gaya hai. Obesity se human brain mein functional changes bhi hote hai. Bahut saare researches ne confirm kiya hai ki obesity low brain volume se interlinked hai. Zyada weight hone se Alzheimer’s disease aur dementia (memory problems) ka risk bhi badh jaata hai.

  • Obesity aur Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea ek type ka sleep disorder hai jisme insaan ke sote waqt uska breathing achanak se ruk jaata hai aur phir start hota hai jis se sone mein problems hote hai. Obese humans mein sleep apnea ka high risk hota hai. Loud snoring (jor se kharraatein lena) iska bahut common symptom hai. Regular sleep apnea se morning headache, high blood pressure, din mein neend aana aur heart failure bhi ho sakta hai.

Sleeping problems

  • Obesity aur Cancer

Ek survey ke according, 2007 ke lag bhag 6% cancers ka kaaran obesity tha. Obesity se colon, pancreatic, breast, esophageal, endometrial, renal, thyroid, gallbladder aur ovarian cancers ka risk badh jaata hai. Iis se liver cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma aur malignant melanoma bhi ho sakta hai.

Obesity ka Solution

Obesity ko alag-alag tareeko se manage kiya ja sakta hai. Toorant weight loss karne ki jagah hum sabko pehle apna weight control karna aur baad mein weight increase na ho iispe focus karna chahiye. Doctors ki help se hum bahut saari approaches ko plan kar sakte hai jisme diet ka modification, behavior, lifestyle mein change, medications aur kuch cases mein surgery bhi ho sakta hai. Aapko pehle ek realistic ya achievable goal set karna chahiye aur agar aap kisi illness se suffer kar rahe hai jaise ki high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis ya doosra koi disease toh phir iise jaroor apne doctor se discuss karein.

  • Weight Loss Strategies

Aap weight loss ke liye alag-alag type ke weight loss strategies use kar sakte hai. Iin strategies mein dietary therapy, physical activity, cryolipolysis, pharmacotherapy ya surgery ka combination ho sakta hai. Weight loss strategies weight gain ko prevent, weight reduction aur kam weight ko lambe time tak maintain karne ke liye bahut effective maana jaata hai.

  • Dietary Modification

Personalized diet obese individual mein effective weight loss ke liye bahut beneficial hota hai. Physicians ya dieticians iin diets ko aapke BMI ke according plan karne mein aapki help kar sakte hai. Weight reducing diets mein low fat aur carbohydrates related food hota hai jis se low-calorie consumption hoga.

Vegetables

Obese humans ko salt, free sugars, processed meats, processed foods (cookies, muffins, cakes, etc), solid fats (jaise ki ghee, coconut aur palm oils), fatty dairy products (butter, whole milk, ice cream aur some cheese) aur alcohol kam consume karna chahiye. Eating whole grain foods (chapatti, oatmeal aur brown rice), legumes, nuts, skimmed milk, fruits aur vegetables overweight individuals ko recommend kiya jaata hai.

Good diet ke alawa, eating habits aur food size bhi utna hi important hai. Kisi bhi insaan ko breakfast skip nahi karna chahiye. Din mein 2 ya 3 baar zyada khaane ki jagah pe 4 ya 5 baar kam quanitity mein khaana better hota hai.

  • Physical Activity

Ye weight reduce karne ke liye bahut important hai because physical activity aapke body ke energy expenditure ko increase karne ke saath hi heart diseases ke risk ko reduce karta hai. Iis mein walking, jogging, dancing, gardening, cycling aur ghar ke kaam jaise activities ho sakte hai. Extensive workout ya extensive physical activity karne se pehle aapko apne doctor se consult karna chahiye, especially jab aapko koi medical condition hai. Aap koi bhi physical activity ko pehle aaram se dheere-dheere karein aur phir time ke saath uska intensity increase kar sakte hai.

  • Weight Reducing Drugs

Aaj ke date mein bahut saare drugs ya medicines available hai har uus insaan ke liye jiska BMI 30 ya usse zyada hai aur kuch cases mein 27 se bhi zyada BMI waale patient ko doctors medicines prescribe kar sakte hai. Commonly, drug therapy ko diet, exercise ya behavioral therapy ke combinations ke saath liya jaata hai.

  • Surgery

Weight loss surgeries ko bariatric surgery bhi bolte hai aur severe cases mein iise weight loss karne ka last option maana jata hai. Doctors iis option ko generally tabhi consider karte hai jab kisi insaan ka BMI 40 ya uss se zyada ho ya phir kisi insaan ka BMI 35 ho lekin uske saaath usse koi illness ho jaise ki type 2 diabetes.

Adjustable gastric binding, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, aur biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch bariatric surgery ke different options hai. Iin sab mein sabse common gastric bypass hai jis se insaan mein rapid weight loss hota hai. Iin surgeries se infection, bleeding, malabsorption, vitamin aur mineral deficiency jaise complications ka risk bhi increase ho sakta hai.

Obesiy ke 2 sabse Common Myths

Myths

  1. Weight gain sirf zyada khaana khaane se hota hai

Fact: Weight gain sirf zyada khaana khaane se nahi hota hai. Iiske peeche aapka eating pattern, physical inactivity, neend na aana, stress, kuch diseases aur kuch cases mein aapka genetics bhi ho sakta hai.

  1. Health improve karne ke liye bahut zyada weight loss karna jaroori hai

Fact: Ye jaroori nahi hai ki health improve karne ke liye ek baar mein hi bahut weight loss kiya jaaye. Thoda sa weight loss se bhi aapke health conditions jaise ki type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, cholesterol aur heart diseases mein bahut improvement aa sakta hai.

For Further Reading

Obesity on the Rise (in English)

Crolipolysis: Freezing your Body Fat (in English)

Stress: Ek Serious Problem