//Kya aap Anemic hai? Anemia ke Important Aspects
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Kya aap Anemic hai? Anemia ke Important Aspects

Red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) aur platelets, blood cells ke types hai jo hum sabke body mein hote hai. Iin blood cells ko humaara bone marrow produce karta hai jo ki humaare bones ke center part mein paaya jaata hai. Blood cells humaare body ke proper functioning ke liye bahut jaroori hai. WBCs humaare body mein infections se fight karte hai; platelets blood clotting ke kaam aata hai aur RBCs body ke different parts tak oxygen transport karta hai taaki saare body ke cells ko oxygen milta rahe.

Red blood cells ka sabse important part hemoglobin hota hai jo ek iron-rich protein hai. Hemoglobin RBCs ko oxygen carry karne mein help karta hai. Humaare body ko RBCs aur platelets produce karne ke liye iron, vitamin-B12, folate aur doosre nutrients ki jaroorat hoti hai jo hum food se obtain kar lete hai.

Anemia kya hai?

Ye bahut hi common blood condition hai jis se laakho log duniyabhar mein suffer karte hai. Anemia mein RBCs ya hemoglobin ka quantity kam ho jaata hai ya phir RBCs poori tarah oxygen ko body ke doosre parts tak nahi pahucha paate. Iiske kaaran cells ko sufficient oxygen nahi milta aur iis se fatigue (thakaan), headache, chest pain, irregular heartbeat, dizziness (sir chakaraana) aur doosre symptoms hone lagte hai.

Anemia 3 cases mein ho sakta hai, jab body required amount mein RBCs nahi bana paata; ya excessive bleeding se bahut blood loss ho jaaye; ya phir kisi infection ya bimaari ke kaaran RBCs destruct hone lage. Anemia commonly pregnancy, bujurgo (older people), bachcho, aurato aur unn insaano mein dekha jaata hai jinhe koi autoimmune disease ho. Poor diet choice ke kaaran bhi anemia ho sakta hai.

Child

Anemia ke Types

400 se bhi zyada tarah ke anemia hote hai jo kisi bhi insaan ko ho sakte hai. Anemia ke kuch sabse common types-

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin Deficiency Anemia (Vitamin B 12 and folic acid)
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Hemolytic Anemia
  • Chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, kidney disease, etc.) se related anemia

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Bachcho mein 30-50% anemia iron deficiency ke kaaran hote hai – World Health Organization

Iron deficiency anemia sabse common type ka anemia hai. Ye body mein iron ki kami ke kaaran hota hai jis se required amount mein red blood cells nahi ban paate.

Hemorrhage ya menstruation ke kaaran blood loss, pregnancy aur malaria, iron deficiency anemia hone ke sabse common reasons hai. Blood donation, hookworm infection ya regular iron deficient diet khaane se bhi iron deficiency anemia ho sakta hai.

Signs and Symptoms

Body ke different parts mein oxygen kam pahuchne ke kaaran iske signs and symptoms dekhe jaa sakte hai. Brittle nails, pale skin, chest pain, headache, dizziness, cold hands/feet, fatigue aur weakness iiske common signs and symptoms hai. Iisi ke saath, irregular ya rapid heartbeat, concentrating problems, ice/dirt/starch khaane ka cravings, aur restless leg syndrome bhi ho sakta hai.

Agar iron deficiency anemia ko treat nahi kiya gaya toh iis se depression, infections aur heart problems (arrhythmias, enlarged heart aur heart failure) ka high risk hota hai. Pregnancy ke cases mein, preterm delivery ya new borns mein low birth weight ka bhi chance ho sakta hai.

Treatment

Iron deficiency anemia ke severity ke according aapke doctors diet, iron supplements aur doosre strategies recommend kar sakte hai.

Green leafy vegetables

Iron rich foods mein eggs, lean red meat, chicken, turkey, duck, salmon, dried fruits, dried beans, cereals, aur peas aate hai.  Iron enriched breads ya pastas, tofu aur, green leafy vegetables jaise ki broccoli, kale, turnip greens aur collards bhi iron ke achhe source hai. Doctors aapko vitamin C rich food khaane ke liye bhi bol sakte hai kyunki vitamin C humaare body ka iron absorb karne ke ability ko badha deta hai. Oranges, strawberries aur tomatoes, vitamin C ke great sources hai. Agar aapko iron deficiency anemia hai toh black tea peena band karna hoga kyuni ye iron absorption rate ko ghata deta hai.

Diet ke saath-saath, doctors aapko limited dosage mein iron supplements lene ko bhi bol sakte hai. Iron deficiency ko treat karne ka ye sabse common option hai, lekin humesha yaad rakhe ki agar iron supplements ko jaroorat se jyada liya gaya toh organ damage bhi ho sakta hai.

Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

Iis type ka anemia tab hota hai jab body mein folate, vitamin B-12 ya vitamin C ki kami se red blood cells kam ho jaaye. Ye aapko tab bhi ho sakta hai jab aapka body iin minerals ko diet se absorb nahi kar paata. Iiska risk bujurgo (older people) aur pregnant aurato mein bahut jyada hota hai.

Folate ki kami se hone waale anemia ko folate deficiency anemia bolte hai. Ye improper diet ke kaaran ho sakta hai. Generally, celiac disease ya small intestine ki surgery ke kaaran bhi ho sakta hai. Kuch medicines aur jyada sharaab peene se folate poori tarah absorb nahi ho paata hai aur uss se folate deficiency anemia hota hai. Body mein pregnancy ke waqt folate ka demand increase hone ke kaaran bhi ye bimaari ho jaata hai.

Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia poor diet choices ke kaaran hota hai jis mein vitamin B-12 ka amount bahut kam ya nahi hota hai. Stomach ya small intestine (gastric bypass surgery) ke surgery ya phir Crohn’s aur celiac disease ke kaaran ye bimaari ho sakta hai. Body mein Intrinsic factor ke kami ke kaaran bhi ye hota hai aur iise pernicious anemia bolte hai. Intrinsic factor ek protein hai jo vitamin B-12 ke absorption mein help karta hai.

Vitamin C ke kami se hone waale anemia ko vitamin C deficiency anemia bolte hai. Poor food choices aur body mein vitamin C ke absorb na hone ke kaaran ye hota hai. Smoking iiske hone ka ek important reason hai.

Signs and Symptoms

Fatigue (thakaan), shortness of breath, dizziness, irregular heartbeat aur weight loss iiske kuch common symptoms hai. Reduced sense of taste, diarrhea, muscle weakness, depression, hands aur feet mein numbness bhi iis bimaari mein dekha gaya hai. Pale skin, sore tongue, mouth ulcers (mooh mein chhaala), irritation, depression, vision problems aur sochne mein problems jaise symptoms bhi ho sakte hai.

headache

Agar iise treat nahi kiya gaya toh infertility, stomach cancer, heart diseases aur scurvy ka risk bahut badh jaata hai. Vitamin deficiency se childbirth problems aur bachcho mein neural tube defects bhi ho sakta hai.

Treatment

Treatment ke liye doctors generally vitamin rich diet aur supplements recommend karte hai. Nuts, enriched grain products (bread, pasta, cereal), green leafy vegetables jaise ki broccoli, brussels sprouts, asparagus ya peas aur brown rice folate ke good sources hai. Egg, milk, cheese, yogurt, red aur white meat vitamin B-12 ke liye beneficial maana jaata hai. Vitamin C ke liye aap citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes aur sweet peppers kha sakte hai.

Kuch lifestyle habits ko badalna jaise ki quitting cigarettes aur sharaab kam peene se bhi ye condition improve ho sakta hai.

Aplastic Anemia

Ye ek rare lekin bahut serious health condition hai. Haalanki, ye har age ke insaano ko ho sakta hai lekin jyadatar 10-20 aur 60-65 ke age group mein hi dekha jaata hai. Aplastic anemia mein humaare body ke bone marrow mein stem cells damage hone se blood cells (RBCs, WBCs aur platelets) nahi produce ho paate. Iiske kaaran humaare body mein blood cells ke kami se bahut saare health problems hote hai.

Aplastic anemia do tarah ke hote hai i.e. acquired aplastic anemia (more common) aur inherited aplastic anemia (rare). Acquired aplastic anemia matlub insaan iis bimaari ke saath paida nahi hua lekin aage chal kar ye bimaari develop ho jaata hai. Inherited aplastic anemia mein insaan iis bimaari ko trigger karne waale gene ke saath paida hota hai jis se baad mein ye bimaari hota hai. Inherited aplastic anemia ka sabse common examples mein Fanconi anemia, Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome aur Diamond-Blackfan anemia aate hai.

Toxic substances/chemicals, certain medicines, cancer ke liye radiation therapy/chemotherapy aur pregnancy, aplastic anemia hone ke major reasons hai. Ye autoimmune disorders, inherited conditions aur hepatitis, HIV ya doosre infections ke kaaran bhi ho sakta hai.

Signs and Symptoms

Weakness, fatigue (thakaan), shortness of breath, light-headedness, palpitations, vision problems, nosebleeds, infections aur skin mein small bruises hona aplastic anemia mein common hai. Iisi ke saath dizziness, headaches, cold hands/feet, pale skin, heart diseases, blood in stool aur skin pe red spots bhi ho sakte hai. Kuch cases mein nausea aur skin rashes bhi dekha gaya hai.

Emergency

Treatment

Severity ke according doctors blood transfusion, blood aur bone marrow stem cell transplant, ya medicines se aplastic anemia ko treat kar sakte hai. Iin sab mei stem cell transplant better option hai lekin ye sirf bachcho aur young logo pe effective hota hai.

Hemolytic Anemia

Ye ek aisa anemia hai jo har age group ke insaano ko equally affect karta hai. Ye chronic aur jaan lewa ho sakta hai. Generally, humaare body mein RBCs ka life 120 days ka hota hai lekin iis bimaari ke kaaran RBCs 120 days se kam time mein hi destroy ho jaate hai. Iiske kaaran body mein RBCs ke production ka demand increase ho jaata hai jo bone marrow fulfill nahi kar paata aur phir bahut saare health problems hone lagte hai.

Aplastic anemia ki tarah ye bhi acquired ya inherited hota hai. Immune hemolytic anemia, mechanical hemolytic anemia aur paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria acquired hemolytic anemia ke types hai. Immune hemolytic anemia mein aapka khud ka immune system aapke body ke RBCs ko destroy kar deta hai. Mechanical hemolytic anemia mein RBCs kisi physical reasons se damage ho jaate hai. Sickle cell anemia aur thalassemias inherited hemolytic anemia ke common types hai.

Infections, autoimmune conditions aur red blood cells mein genetic defects hona hemolytic anemia ke common causes hai. Exposure to chemicals, toxins ya medicines aur unmatched donor se blood transfusion ke kaaran bhi hemolytic anemia ho sakta hai.

Signs and Symptoms

Hemolytic anemia ke signs and symptoms insaan ke according vary karte hai. Common symptoms mein weakness, dizziness, confusion, concentrating problems, headache, pale skin, yellow skin ya eyes (jaundice) aur dark-colored urine aate hai. Iis bimaari mein enlarged spleen ya enlarged liver, increased heartbeat aur heart murmur bhi common hai.

Treatment

medicine

Jab tak mild hemolytic anemia progress nahi hota tab tak treatment ka jaroorat nahi hota. Lekin, severe cases mein proper treatment bahut jaroori hai. Emergency cases mein blood transfusion kiya jaata hai. Surgery, medicines, supplements, stem cell transplant aur lifestyle changes se bhi hemolytic anemia ko treat kar sakte hai.

Anemia ke 2 sabse Common Myths

  1. Iron deficiency se aksar anemia hota hai

Fact: Haalanki, ye sach hai ki iron deficiency, anemia ka ek bahut common cause hai, lekin, jaroori nahi ki saare anemia iron deficiency ke kaaran hi ho. Anemia hone ke bahut saare reasons ho sakte hai.

  1. Anemia sirf bachcho aur aurato ko affect karta hai

Fact: Anemia commonly bachcho aur aurato ko hota hai, lekin, iska ye matlub nahi ki aadmiyon ko anemia nahi ho sakta. Anemia har age group aur ethnic background ke logo ko affect kar sakta hai.

For Further Reading

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